|Integration and application of multimodal measurement techniques: relevance of photogrammetry to orthodontics
|Pojda D, Tomaka A A, Luchowski L, Tarnawski M
Multimodal imaging, including 3D modalities, is increasingly being applied in orthodontics, both as a diagnostic tool and especially for the design of intraoral appliances, where geometric accuracy is very important. Laser scanners and other precision 3D imaging devices are expensive and cumbersome, which limits their use in medical practice. Photogrammetry, using ordinary 2D photographs or video recordings to create 3D imagery, offers a cheaper and more convenient alternative, replacing the specialised equipment with handy consumer cameras. The present paper addresses the question to what extent, and under what conditions, this technique can be an adequate replacement for the 3D scanner. The accuracy of simple surface reconstruction and of model embedding achieved with photogrammetry was verified against that obtained with a triangulating laser scanner.
To roughly evaluate the impact of image imperfections on photogrammetric reconstruction, the photographs for photogrammetry were taken under various lighting conditions and used either raw or with a blur simulating defocus. Video footage was also tested as another 2D imaging modality feeding data into photogrammetry. Results show significant potential of photogrammetric techniques.